Caustic Soda Sodium Hydroxide Chemical supplier Nigeria
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Avon Basson Nigeria is the foremost chemical manufacturer, supplier and distributor in Nigeria, we have large stock of Caustic soda pearls in our warehouses across Nigeria.
About Caustic Soda Sodium Hydroxide
Caustic soda pearls also known as caustic soda, sodium hydroxide, Sodagrin, or sodium hydrate. It is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+ and hydroxide anions OH−. Sodium hydroxide decomposes proteins at under normal temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, with the liberation of heat, and are stable under normal conditions and it forms a series of hydrates and monohydrate. It is a strong base and, as such has many applications in industries all over the world.
Production of caustic Soda
Caustic soda are produced by different kinds of method or processes such as Loewig’s process, White liquid oxidation process, Camichael method, Le Sueur’s process and Castner – Kellerner Process. We will focus on Castner – Kellerner process for this article.
Castner – Kellerner Process of production of caustic soda
Nearly all caustic soda is generated by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution using one of three cell types: mercury, diaphragm and membrane cells.
The primary raw material is common salt, usually in the form of underground deposits which are brought to the surface as a solution in a pumped high pressure water supply. The sodium chloride solution is often called brine.
Principle — incastner-kellner method NaOH is prepared by the electrolysis of aqueous solution of NaCl (Brine).
Castner-kellner cell — it is a rectangular tank of steel. Inside of tank is lined with ‘ebonite.’ Anode is made of titanium. Flowing layer of mercury (Hg) at the bottom of tank serves as cathode.
Ionization of NaCl — 2NaCl e- 2Na+ + 2Cl-
When electric current is passed through brine, +ve and -ve ions migrate towards their respective electrodes. Na+ ions are discharged at mercury cathode. The sodium deposited at mercury forms Sodium Amalgam. Chlorine produced at the anode is removed from the top of the cell.
Reaction at cathode
2Na+ +2 e- à 2Na
(Na forms amalgam)
Na + Hg à Na/Hg
Na+ ions are discharged in preference to H+ ions due to high over voltage.
Reaction at anode
2Cl- à Cl2 + 2e-
Formation of NaOH
Amalgam moves to another chamber called ‘denuder,’ where it is treated with water to produce NaOH which is in liquid state. Solid NaOH is obtained by the evaporation of this solution.
2Na/Hg + 2H2O à 2NaOH + H2 + 2Hg
NaOH obtained is highly pure and the process is very efficient.
Application of Caustic soda
Soap production, as they engender saponification of the vegetable oils or fats that is necessary for soap manufacture.
They are also in the aluminium industry as the caustic soda dissolves bauxite ore, which is the raw material in aluminium production.
It is use in the paper industry where it is utilized in pulping and bleaching processes.
Another major use for caustic soda is chemical processing as caustic soda is a basic feedstock for a range of down-stream products including solvents, plastics, fabrics, adhesives.
It can also be used for aluminium etching, chemical analysis, and in paint stripper. It is also a component in a range of domestic products including pipe and drain cleaner, oven cleaner, and in home-cleaning products.
Characteristic of caustic soda
Pure sodium hydroxide is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 318 °C without decomposition.
It is highly soluble in water, with a lower solubility in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol. NaOH is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents.
It dissolves in water to release large amount of heat to the surrounding.
It forms hydrates.
It reacts with acid to produce salt and water
It reacts with acidic oxides
Sodium hydroxide can be used for the base-driven hydrolysisof esters (as in saponification), amides and alkyl halides.
Caustic soda is produced all around the globe with world production standing at approximately 62 million tonnes per annum which involves the electrolysis of sodium chloride using one of three cell types: mercury, diaphragm, or membrane. Caustic soda pearls are an important inorganic chemical as they are used in numerous industries worldwide as outlined above.
Avon Basson Nigeria is a specialist manufacturer and major distributor caustic soda pearls and many other chemical products for several industrial applications. Call on us or contact us here for all your chemical need.